Antibiotics, Probiotics, Prebiotics

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There is a lot in the press about pro- and prebiotics at the moment and Tatu wanted to provide a more in-depth look at the topic. She also includes her killer kimchii recipe to give you an alternative form of probiotic.

Microflora and disease processes: the link

Each human has a vast number of bacteria and microbes that live within and on us. Some of them are welcome and we share a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relationship; others are not so welcome and cause unwanted disease.

It is estimated that there are approximately 1.3 bacteria for every human cell. However there are, of course, many other organisms including fungi, viruses and so on which would bring the non-self:self ratio to around 10:1. When we have an overgrowth or invasion of the less desirable ones we become unwell exhibiting symptoms associated with infection (elevated body temperature, fatigue, confusion, myalgias (pains) and so on).

With the discovery of penicillin in 1920s and the development of antibacterial medicines, we have been able to easily overcome bacterial infections which, prior to these developments, would have meant certain death to many.

One might wonder how it is possible for a pathogen or bacteria-killing drug to have negative effects on our health and lead to further infections. One published research piece highlighted that poorly absorbed and metabolised drugs may travel further through the digestive system into the colon (where we have a huge colony of helpful bacteria who aid us in a number of ways). When this occurs we start to see decimation of the ‘good bacteria’ populations whose function is not only to assist with the breakdown of food and fibres but also to prevent over population of ‘bad bacteria’.

Probiotics

Probiotic supplementation can be an excellent tool for individuals who have an altered microbiome as a result of, for example, virulent infection, poor diet, drug (antibiotic or recreational) and alcohol use. If the population numbers drop, introducing new colonies is extremely beneficial in order to maintain healthy numbers. The mutually beneficial commensal bacteria crowd out the pathogenic strains. They also have their own defence and offence systems including membrane targeting chemicals that act much like the antibiotics listed above.

Taking good care of yourself with good quality probiotics when they are needed is a great idea. There is plenty of research to support this approach however sensationalist headlines about probiotics are often based on one research paper that may have industry funding.

One clinical trial, for example, tested the effects of Actimel and balancing Th1 from Th2 dominance and showed positive results. However, it is important to note that the trial was on mice and they were fed only Actimel. There is no justification for extrapolating to suggest that if a human drank their daily caloric intake in Actimel they may exhibit lower levels of Th2 cytokines and Interlukin 10!

Prebiotics

The ‘good bacteria’ need to be fed to allow them to grow, much like feeding your pets or fertilising soil for plants. Each pet or plant thrives on a different diet and environment, and the owner must cater to their needs. Prebiotics are the beneficial bacteria’s food, an example being inulin. Inulin is an indigestible fibre found naturally in foods but can also be found in supplements.

In the immune system, we have little guys called T regulatory cells who modulate the immune response, swaying towards one end of its spectrum and to the other end. This is based on the Th1/Th2 Dominance theory (See P. Kidd for further reading on this theory). Most people have a dominance of one or another Th cell; Th2 is associated with allergies and intolerances and has higher risk of cancer development. Th1 is more associated with autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis and lower risk of cancer development, this being the rarer of the Th dominance. 90% of T regulatory cells are found in the immune system of the gut and therefore an imbalance in the commensal bacteria will inevitably lead to detrimental effects on the T-reg populations and functionality.

Therefore, we can see the links made by Park et al in regards to both anticancer and immune promotion as well as colorectal function. If the immune system is functioning optimally, the T-regulatory cells will have immediate inflammatory response and therefore reduce unneeded inflammation and the oxidative stress that arises as a result of it. Oxidative stress damaged telomeres (the end bits of chromosomes) which is the main driver of ageing of cells, organs and organisms. Once the immune system is working optimally it can create a clean and efficient working environment for Schwan cells to continue to create myelin sheaths around neuron axons in the brain as well as ensure the microglial cells in the brain are being good cleaners and sweeping away the mess inevitably caused by energy production and utilisation in the mitochondria of each cell.

In regards to anti-obesity, one might explain probiotics positive effect by reducing toxic load due to promotion of beneficial commensal bacteria, producing useful by-products instead of toxins. ,Toxins cause stress on the body resulting in the release of cortisol releasing hormone from the hypothalamus in the brain, that then tells the pituitary to release cortisol which has physiological effects on the peripheral cells of the body. Leptin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells when they are full of fat. Leptin acts on the hypothalamus, but if the hypothalamus is inundated with cortisol it is going to ignore leptin. In addition, the insulin receptors on individual cells are deactivated by cortisol. The cells then signal for the release of more insulin to ensure they get glucose in to make energy but the cortisol keeps blocking the receptors resulting in an excess of insulin. Eventually this leads to insulin resistance, which is also a driving factor behind obesity. Both physiological stress, in the form of toxins in the gut, and external mental and emotional stresses can drive these pathways.

Supplements vs Food Source

Post surgery, during the use of antibiotics, virulent GIT infections resulting in an imbalance in the microflora, periods of fasting and travelling are all good times to think about taking a good quality, high population probiotic, (billions not millions!) as well as adding fermented foods with live bacteria in them, to your diet. For most, probiotics will not be needed on a regular basis given a balanced diet and lifestyle. However a quick rebalance for 1-6 months may help when medications, stress, trauma, illness and fasting feature in a person’s life. Of all the products on the market Optibac is the most thoroughly researched with published trials available. T his doesn’t mean that others do not work, it just means that Optibac products are proven to work in trial.

For those who feel well, healthy and energised but want to maintain that feeling then considering probiotic foods would be sensible. Raw and live fermented products including kimchi, sauerkraut, kefir both lactose based and water based, raw fermented yoghurts and milks etc. There is a new movement of soil bacteria products emerging which, in theory, would be more closely related to the palaeolithic probiotic intakes available.

Tatu’s simple kimchi recipe

  • 1 heap of nappa/Chinese cabbage, sliced

  • 1 large red onion, sliced

  • 1 daikon cut into thin sticks or two large handfuls of regular radishes, sliced

  • 2 carrots, cut into thin strips

  • 2-3 cloves garlic, minced

  • 2 inches ginger, grated

  • 3 tbsp fish sauce

  • 1-2 tbsp sea salt

  • 1 tbsp raw honey/agave/maple syrup

  • Water to cover

Toss all the vegetables together so evenly mixed and set aside whilst you mix the garlic, ginger, cayenne pepper/chilli, fish sauce, salt and honey with ½ cup of warm water. Stuff the vegetable mix into a large pickling jar and pour over the liquid. Add more water to cover all the vegetables and leave to ferment for 3-7 days ensuring to check regularly that the water still covers the vegetables. Add to soups, curries, salads or scrambled eggs.

If you don’t fancy the faff of preparing your own, you can grab a jar of kimchi, sauerkraut or kefir yogurt from Biona or a Kaffir water drink from Bouncing Biotics.

Raw versus Cooked

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When is a raw food diet a good idea?

Ulcerative colitis, intestinal blockage, low stomach acid, SIBO and a number of other digestive complaints should be closely monitored by a specialist if a move towards raw foods is desired. If low stomach acid, low digestive enzymes, microflora imbalance along with slow transit time are seen in individuals then a high fruit and fibre diet (not the breakfast cereal) may encourage fermentation resulting in bloating, gas, pain, cramps and so forth. One should seek specialist help if reacting in this way to high volumes of raw foods.

Some foods contain compounds that can be unhelpful in SOME cases:

Goitrogens: substances that cause goiters, i.e., an enlargement of the thyroid gland. They are only a concern in those who have thyroid issues. Foods containing goitrogens include raw soya products and cruciferous vegetables. Slight cooking will destroy these compounds.

Tannins: complex plant compounds that are often bitter or astringent. They are most famously found in tea and will reduce the body’s ability to absorb nutrients, specifically minerals.

Phytoestrogens: plant analogues of the hormone oestrogen. The effects of phytoestrogens seem to be lessened by fermentation rather than heat. These compounds are not always a bad thing as in many cases they can be used therapeutically to help restore hormone imbalances and support the reduction of hormone driven health complications.

Flatus-producing oligosaccharides: carbohydrates that cause flatulence (gas). These are found often in brassicas and pulses. In the case of pulses, the act of germination will reduce these to a negligible level and can be easily done at home by soaking the pulse of choice in fresh water until the little ‘tails’ appear. For some pulses this will take a day.

Phytates: substances that bind to minerals preventing absorption. These are destroyed by heat and fermentation and, to a degree, by the addition of certain acidic compounds such as lemon juice and apple juice.

Raw food diets tend to contain fewer synthetic and processed foods. The toxicant load is often lower and so this approach can be useful for those whose immune systems are under strain. Raw food done properly will promote weight-loss however eating endless cashew and avocado raw cakes will not, so being wise about food choices even in this format is always advised.

Types of Cooking: Pros and Cons

Steaming

A great way to cook vegetables quickly without risk of leaching all the minerals out of them; brief steaming reduces damage to water-soluble vitamins as well.

Open flame cooking

Delicious and often preferred by those wanting to lose weight as it does not involve added oils or fats, the high temperature means carcinogenic compounds are formed on foods (the above mentioned heterocyclic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons).

Boiling/ Simmering

This is excellent for leaching minerals from bones and ideally done on a low heat for a long period of time.

Slow cooking

This is the healthiest way to prepare meats as it does not produce carcinogens. It is also a very easy cooking method. I would advise adding a generous portion of raw leaves/ vegetables at the end so you have undamaged phytonutrients and water soluble vitamins.

Frying

The high temperatures of frying can damage not only the food being cooked but, can also alter the molecular makeup of the fats being used to cook with. This is especially the case if they have numerous double bonds as polyunsaturated fats. If you must fry, then using a tiny amount of saturated fat is best and add the more fragile oils as flavour afterwards.

A combined natural approach

I would advise for most clients to adapt their diets to a combination of raw and cooked foods as the human biome has adapted to consume cooked foods and the low B12 levels seen in raw vegan blood tests suggests dangers of anaemia and issues with methylation of methionine and homocysteine.

Cooking meats at a temperature lower than 150 degree Centigrade will avoid the formation of heterocyclic amines and polyaromatic carbons in animal products. Inclusion of raw meats and fish from safe sources is good but be careful not to consume in too high quantities as proteins are not a good source of energy. The impact of excess protein on the uric acid cycle can be damaging to the organs, but also to the ability to easily transport nutrients through membranes as the by-products can alter the acidity of the body. Soaking pulses until they germinate helps reduce the phytate activity for both raw consumption and in the cooking process.

Steaming vegetables is the way to cook them although I would also advise incorporating a great deal of raw foods into the diet to reduce damage to water soluble vitamins and protective phytonutrients.

Eating made Easy

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Are you lost when it comes to thinking about what you will be eating for breakfast, lunch or dinner? Is it often quite a stressful process? Well, our resident chef, Tatu Bearcroft has the answers.

In this post Tatu shares 6 simple things to consider when choosing the best food fuel for you and your family.

6 tips to make fuelling your body simple & consistent

1. Just add green

As the nutrient levels in foods continue to dwindle, we are encouraged to eat more vegetables (Aune et al., 2017). This can be a struggle for many, especially those with smaller appetites or less digestive function with regards to fibre breakdown. Simply adding leafy greens such as kale, spring greens, calvelo nero, kalettes, savoy cabbage and so forth to each main meal is the simplest way to increase your consumption. You may choose to add a similar quantity as a snack or in a smoothie.

2. Chew and savour

In today’s mad rush to do a million things at once, we often push the task of eating and refuelling to the bottom of the priority list. Digestion of food begins with the secretion of salivary amylase in the mouth. If we are wolfing down our lunch whilst dashing between meetings, we will certainly have suboptimal digestion of that meal. (Ehlert, Nater and Böhmelt, 2017). It would be better to wait until it’s calm again to get the most from the meal.

3. Only eat when hungry

Think about your hunger next time it comes, assess whether it is hunger of the stomach or hunger of the mouth or perhaps even hunger of the mind. From a young age we are ingrained with eating behaviours by those around us from whom we learn. The most common will be placating a nervous, bored, angry, frustrated or sad child with a sweet treat. This programming has a profound impact on us as we grow up and becomes our instilled behaviour as adults. As you can imagine, a childhood of being given smarties every time tears threaten will likely end up in a subconscious belief that smarties will solve emotional upset. Equally so, some may mistake hunger for anxiety and vice versa due to the physiological actions of the stress hormones released by the pituitary gland and adrenals; butterflies in the tummy as we may have been told as children. This can create a cycle of stress eating which is unhelpful as it will often result in malabsorption of nutrients and therefore storage.

Eating when hungry ensures we consume the correct quantity of nutrients for our needs. Breaking the mental and emotional ties to the physiological process can free us from weight mismanagement and suboptimal nutrition.

4. Pay attention to sensible cravings

Many of us have somehow lost the ability to truly listen to our bodies. Cravings for certain things will indicate what our body needs; chocolate chip cookies and lemon drizzle cake are not true cravings, they are a learnt, addictive behaviours.

Cravings for red meat, dark chocolate, vinegar and red kidney beans can indicate a need for iron. Cravings for dark green leafy vegetables can indicate a need for fibre, potassium and magnesium. Cravings for red and orange foods may indicate a need for carotenes, beta, alpha and lycopene which are antioxidants and precursors to Vitamin A. Craving for ‘wet’ foods such as cucumber, cereal with milk, soups and so on may indicate low water in the cells as well as extracellular fluid. Cravings for earth and soil often seen during pregnancy are associated with low mineral status. Cravings for fish, particularly oil, may mean cell membranes are lacking in EPA and DHA found in fish oils. A craving for salt may indicate dehydration and/or low adrenal function. Craving for sweet foods can suggest low blood sugar. Pay attention to true, honest cravings and go with them if they are for whole foods and nutrient rich. Marmite on toast probably doesn’t count!

5. Don’t even look at processed or ready made foods

Processed foods are contrary to the paleo way and our ethos at Wildfitness and we would always encourage real, natural whole foods instead. Processed foods tend to have higher calorific contents as well as lower fibre, lower phytonutrients and water soluble vitamins and have synthetic additives including folic acid, iron sulphate and other obscure molecules that are damaging to our systems. Next time you have a moment, look at the ingredients of a hot cross bun, a loaf of supermarket own brand sliced bread, a packet of Doritos. Many of these ingredients, although branded natural, are so processed and refined that they are largely unrecognisable to the body.

6. Think about your meal composition and your daily food intake

Not each meal has to have the same composition of macronutrients but taking into consideration the food types you are consuming each day helps you to make wise choices.

One way to think about it is to imagine you are strolling through the forests of Europe in mid spring - what might you find to eat? A small handful of nuts, a few strawberries, a tuber or two? Plenty of wild garlic, nettles, sorrel, a wild cabbage and some wild carrots. You might stumble upon a bird’s nest and enjoy a few eggs or catch a trout or salmon in a stream. Perhaps you may even find a fox feeding off a discarded carcass and chase it away to crack the bones for marrow. You might spy a wild mushroom or two and, on a really good day, a bee hive might provide you with a little waxy honey.

Should I fast?

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A question that seems to be asked with increasing frequency. And one for which the answer is never a straightforward yes or no.

Intermittent fasting

Intermittent fasting can be extremely useful in weight loss and therefore hormone balancing as fat is metabolically and endocrinologically active. The reason for this in the combined reduction in calories as well as stimulating the metabolism to switch gears to fat burning. The mechanism behind this is multifaceted but can be explained without too much difficulty.

During periods of extended fasting the body will adapt and reduce its energy expenditure by slowing enzymatic function and prioritising usage in the most important areas such as the brain. Shorter periods of fasting will switch the body from burning the available glucose into burning fats in adipose tissue, love handles to you and me, but it will not down-regulate overall metabolism and reduce energy expenditure dramatically. This switch can be further influenced by upregulating metabolism through movement and exercise; having a workout session just before eating.

After we have utilised a certain amount of stored glucose in the form of glucagon, the body will realise that stores are running low by means of hormone signalling. The brain can run on two forms of energy, ketones and glucose. Many people will say they can reach a fully ketogenic state however research shows that the brain always requires glucose as well.

Insulin is the hormone that knocks on the door of each cell requesting that the gates are opened to allow glucose in, to be utilised by the mitochondria for energy production. It only knocks if there is a rise in blood glucose. In some cases of chronically high blood glucose due to high dietary intake, the insulin must constantly knock on the doors of each cell hassling them to let the glucose in The cells become fed up with insulin interminably harassing them and start to ignore insulin as they do not need any more glucose. This can become a dangerous cycle driving both insulin and blood glucose higher as the glucose cannot get into cells for utilisation.

When there is a lot of glucose in the bloodstream it can start sticking to other molecules creating glycated proteins from LDL and other transport proteins. These are large sticky molecules that bump around in the blood stream creating havoc on blood vessel linings in the form of oxidative stress, which can lead to a number of health complications and chronic inflammatory disease states.

However during short periods (12-24hrs) of fasting, when blood sugar levels drop, there is no use for insulin so the production is reduced. This is a key factor for those with insulin resistance and diabetes type 2 (not type 1) (Barnosky et al., 2017). With less insulin circulating, the cells become more sensitive to its presence which reduces insulin resistance and improves sensitivity. This helps to explain the use for intermittent fasting in cases of chronic diseases including that of the liver (Vanhorebeek et al., 2017), inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis, oxidative stress, diabetes mellitis type 2, blood lipid imbalances and atherosclerosis.

Extended Water Fasting

Supervised water fasting has not been studied in depth however anecdotal data indicate positive effects of metastatic growths, gastrointestinal permeability reduction and therefore food sensitivities. Dr Goldhamer of TrueNorth in California has suggested that patients have normalised blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose levels, musculoskeletal issues and many more alongside removing lifelong dependency on medicines. Published data are hard to find, however.

Unsafe and Unsupervised Fasting

As you now know, with low levels of insulin and blood glucose, the body starts to burn fats through a process called beta oxidation. Adipose tissue or adipocyte store excess energy in the form of fats, adipose tissue also stores fat soluble chemicals and toxicants. Water soluble ones are quickly excreted, in many instances they were once fat soluble but are made more water soluble in the phase two of liver detoxification. If phase two is suboptimal one has a build up of fat soluble toxins which must be stored. Fat soluble molecules can more easily traverse across cell membranes which can be dangerous whereas water soluble ones must be transported by energy dependant transport proteins.

This may happen in the case of illness that requires medical intervention and drugs, exposure to pollution and organophosphates (fertilisers) as well as the more well known, alcohol use. The liver becomes overburdened and shunts what it cannot metabolise into storage in adipocytes to be dealt with at a later date. If that person then decides to go on a liver cleanse or a strong fast, the fat is mobilised to be burnt for energy and with that the stored toxins are released. If those toxins are potent enough, they can cause serious damage and, in very extreme cases, death. This is why gentle build ups and wise detoxification is advised before any prolonged fast.

Juice and Smoothie Fasting

A discussion that certainly stimulates heated debate. Choosing between each is highly dependant on the aim of the fast.

Smoothies include the whole vegetable and fruit. Done correctly, these are excellent however many slip up by making them into sugar based high fat litres of liquid that are not so dissimilar to just having a slice of iced cake. A mostly vegetable smoothie with a little fruit and small amounts of good fats gives an excellent source of fibre along with the ease of being able to consume a large quantity of plant foods in a quick drink. The fibre is excellent for manually cleansing the digestive system removing unwanted excess toxins, hormones and stuck foods as well as feeding the commensal bacteria in the colon, the is in relation to the enterohepatic circulation (Roberts MS, 2017).

Juices generally have a higher concentration of nutrients but lack fibre. This means less work for the digestive system as well as potentially higher sugar content per volume. This approach would be excellent for those who are trying to increase micronutrient consumption but may have digestive complaints. This would not be advised for those who suffer from constipation as the lack of fibre can slow transit time.

If you have no major health concerns or complications combining the two can be a great middle ground although if you have low blood pressure it is advised to supplement small amounts of sea salt or use sodium rich vegetables.

Conclusion

The advantages and disadvantages of any form of fasting will depend on the individual’s physiology, underlying diseases and metabolic variants. If you have a history of prolonged drug use, medicinally or otherwise, approach extreme fasting with caution. However a gradual introduction of intermittent fasting combined with antioxidant and liver supportive foods would be an excellent starting place. If you have any liver, kidney or lung problems seek the advice of a medical practitioner and look to have blood tests prior. Those with diabetes should approach longer term fasting with caution and seek medical supervision.

Although research may be a little thin on the ground, there is some evidence that various forms of fasting have beneficial health effects. When considering a fast, pose yourself a few questions to be sure you are making the right choices.

Do I have any serious health conditions that may be contraindicated for the fast I am considering?

Have I prepared properly in advance to reduce the risk of recycling excessive stored toxins?

Am I in a safe and relaxed environment to enjoy my fast and glean the most benefit from it?

The Paleo Diet Explained

The diet you will abide by on our retreats may sound unimaginable to some but in this blog Tatu, our chef in residence hopes to enlighten you and break it down so that you can see why we implement it and how it can help you!

Wildfitness has adopted an adapted paleo approach to allow for realistic approach of what is achievable in a modern, urban environment. We encourage all natural foods alongside ergonomic wild movement filled with exploration of the internal and external world with awareness and gentleness to ourselves to manage the stresses of modern day life. At the very core of the Wildfitness philosophy is the principle of reconnection; to nature, playfulness, ourselves as humans and one another.

Many think of the paleo approach as being huge hunks of meat at each meal, more akin to the diet of a carnivore, which has been a point of contention through the years. This is not the case and one can even adopt a vegetarian adapted paleo diet although specific food groups must be carefully considered.

“True paleo means eating approximately 75 percent plant based food, non-starchy vegetables, fruit, seeds and tree nuts with the addition of compassionately reared/ free-range meat, fish and eggs.”
Dr Kim Lloyd, founder of the Paleo Society.

An interesting three-week study of obese diabetic patients showed improved total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) control in patients on a paleo diet of similar caloric intake to that of those with a Normal American Diet. The calories were split in the same way in each diet, meaning both groups of patients consumed approximately 54% from carbohydrates, 28% from protein and the remainder from fats. In the discussion the researchers noted that the group on the paleo diet struggled with the quantity of food needed to achieve the required calorie goal to match the control group and therefore, had they not been made to eat the same calorific equivalent, weight-loss would have been significant. This would have undoubtedly in the long term had a further positive effect on blood serum markers such as Glycated Haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose, the two major markers used for diabetes diagnostics and monitoring.

A further study of paleo diet adoption showed slightly different results, most likely based on the difference of macro nutrient percentages (40% fat, 30% protein, 30% carbohydrates) although it was agreed that the diet did have overall positive results for reducing risk factors for chronic disease development. This trial highlighted that an aspect often overlooked is the subjective wellbeing of the participants, a point we feel is important to note in the context of what Wildfitness advocates.

Although performed as an animal trial, specific outcomes of this trial have massively positive implications for immunomodulation and chronic disease states. ‘The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Palaeolithic group.’ (Jönsson et al., 2017). You might ask: what on earth this means and why the excitement? C-Reactive protein is a diagnostic marker used to identify presence or absence of chronic inflammation as well as to monitor inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Lupus. The demonstrated reduction of this in a short term trial strongly indicates that adoption of this eating habit will reduce the risk and expression of inflammation and complications that arise as a result. Longer duration trials would be useful to assess accurately the long term effects of adopting the paleo diet on diagnostic health markers and general feelings of wellness.

One review paper explored the true paleo diet as seen in hunter-gatherers in remote parts of sub-Saharan Africa. One of the concerns in the modern western adaptation of the palaeolithic diet (and all western diets in fact) is the Omega 3 to Omega 6 ratio which has been shown to be part of the drive of the chronic inflammatory diseases we see in practice. This paper highlighted that bone marrow and brain would have been consumed in reasonable amounts and both these parts of the carcass would be an excellent source of Omega 3 fatty acids. Currently our population is supplementing with high dose EPA fish oils or the vegan alternatives to combat our high Omega 6 intake from grains and animal products. Following a paleo diet high in red meat can lead to a string imbalance of Omega 3:6 which can then lead to inflammation and system damage. Reducing Omega 6 rich foods whilst incrementally increasing ethically sourced Omega 3 sources would be advisable to ensure that immune, nervous and cardiovascular system health is maintained.

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Taking into consideration these findings, adopting a more palaeolithic approach to food is advisable so long as you don’t chose to eat a steak for each meal as you can cause yourself harm through over consumption as red meats contain carcinogens, this will be discussed in more detail in another blog post: Raw vs Cooked.

An extension from a paleo diet is a more general adoption of a paleo lifestyle. Specifically relating to food, it suggests eating locally grown produce and certainly airfreighted acai berries and avocados. Eating locally in season reduces the impact on the planet and also on the water supplies of poorer countries working to supply the western nations with exotic superfoods grown to the detriment of a dwindling water supply.

Have a look at what locally grown produce is available; it will be picked later and therefore have a higher nutrient concentration for your health whilst you consider the health of the planet too. You can find more information about seasonal foods here: eattheseasons.co.uk

We hope this has helped and if you have any further questions - keep checking back to our blog as Tatu will be shedding light on new topics each month. The next one will be on Fasting.